阅读文献的那些事

英文文献不好读,篇幅长、语言习惯不同,明明单词都认识(至少可通过词典认识),但有时却还是看不懂、看了后面,忘了前面、无法抓住要点。

抓住要点的"捷径",看图表!

大家常常忽略图表,其实图表常常是要点,也很简明扼要的表达了需要很多篇幅文字才能表达的信息,你可以用很短的时间理解作者表达的内容以及作者文字未写出来但通过图表可以发现的内容。

文献首先看abstract,有兴趣的或是觉得有用的才看全文,全文就其目的不同阅读的方法也有差异,一般的就看introduction和discussion,introduction从中可以了解他立体的一些背景,然后迅速扫描有哪些技术,then立即跳到discussion中,看其如何解释data的。

论文的命题(假说)是什么?什么背景?

1、论文主要解决的问题是什么?

2、这个问题重要吗?为什么? 我为什么要读这篇文献?是否有人做过?自己会怎么设计方法来解决?

3、A 通过图表,你会得到什么结论?

B 图表说明什么问题?能否说明该问题

自己要得到这张图会用什么方法?

作者用的是什么方法?

C你能够重新画出这张图,用自己的语言表达吗?

4、作者采用什么方法来解决这个问题?假设是什么?理论依据是什么?这些方法是否符合论证命题的需要?通过这个方法,你觉得大概能得到怎样的结果?是否有能得到更好结果的方法或更加简单的方法?他为什么这样设计试验?是怎么想到的?有什么创新?你为什么没有想到?

5、A这些设计能否满足需要?为什么?这种方法有什么缺陷或进一步需要阐明的地方? 结果分析统计方法有什么缺陷

B这些试验是如何组织起来的,之间的逻辑关系是什么?每项试验都有什么意义?哪些是 必要的?哪些是不必要的?
C如果是我得到这样的结果,我会得到什么结论?

6、A 文章的结论是什么?和你想的差异在哪里?

B 结论可靠性如何?对原来的结论有什么支持或变化? 你如何评价?

C 讨论中是如何从已知的知识得到结论的

7、A试验结果是否支持文章的结论、问题、设计、方法和讨论的逻辑关系是什么,作者是如何达到目的的?有哪些哲学思想和技巧?

B 还有哪些不确定采用的是推测的地方?为什么不确定?我能否进一步确定?

C 文章是如何描述结果、如何解析图表趋势,论据如何组合,如何表达自己的观点?

8、和同类文献,有什么共同点和不同点?

9、和以前的文献,作者思路上有什么变化,下一步是什么?我能否有进一步改进或者加入?

10、别人还有哪些地方没做?要是我接着此方向继续做,哪些是在我所在工作条件下可以做的,哪些必须要做,哪些别人肯定比我做得更好更快?

看文章一定不是把一篇一篇的通吃 而是每次根据自己的目的看一批内容相似文章所需的部分。需要强调的是,每次看文章要紧扣你这次看文章的目的,这样才能达到比较高的效率。看作者的Idea是如何构思的?如果要试验设计,就看作者是如何证明的;要具体的试验方法,就只研究操作;要了解进展,只看结论……

通篇全吃,一是不大可能,二是比较盲目,所以看文章和搜文章一样,切忌贪多,以少量多次为原则,达到目的“见好就收”。

带着问题去看,从作者的角度去看,一可以很好抓住中心,二可克服厌倦心理(可开动脑筋)。

要根据自己的科研目的,挑选各类有代表的几篇进行“精读”,这时可以采用提问题的方法,建立利用endnote整理文献,并做笔记

一般来说,先看标题,文章杂志的影响因子。再看摘要,图片,如果有价值再看讨论。

先看标题,文章杂志的影响因子可以大致确定这片文章的意义已经与自己想要的内容的大致关系。影响因子高一些,作者会提出一些建设性的想法以及推论,有时候就可以撞击你的思路出现灵感。看摘要可以进一步确定文章内容和你的课题的相关性。看图片可以更快让你理解文章结果所要表达的内容。


To work on an important problem. To do a great research.

At the beginning of my research, I tried to read as many papers as possible and tried to get all details of papers. After several weeks I was got stuck. There are so many papers and so many topics and some many problems. I did not know what I should read more and what I should focus on. In fact, I found that I did not know how to do research. My most urgent problem was to learn how to read papers. Then I spent two days to learn it. I searched on the website and got lots of good advices on this topic. I appricated all the help to me. These suggestions from different people have different emphasis. According to my understanding of these suggestions, I summarised these ideas and listed them as following to guide my ongoing research.

Whenever reading, always keep in mind "Know what you want, and then get it and no more".

- It is better to keep your own mind free and to not let the thinking of others interfere with your own free thinking.

- You need to keep up more to find out what the problems are than to read to find the solutions.

- The reading is necessary to know what is going on and what is possible. But reading to get the solutions does not be the way to do great research.

- Don't give yourself very much time. "figure out what this paper's about" within the 30 minutes. Just do it; you will figure it out. Just imagine you're a reviewer whose plane is landing in twenty minutes, and you have to decide whether this paper is crappy or good!

Pass One: What's the point? (5 minutes)

1. Read title carefully and think what I will do under this title if I was the author for 5 minutes.

2. Read abstract, skim section headlines, introduction and conclusion.

--> Answer the following questions:

1. What's the problem?

2. What is the benefit to solve this problem?、

3. What have been done on the problem?

4. Why are others' work inadequate?

5. What is the authers' solutions? Under what assumptions?

6. Why is his/her solution better than others? What's the limitation?

Pass Two: What's the evidence? (15 minutes) only when you believe it deserves a carefully reading

Whenever reading the details, always keep in mind "Do NOT miss the BIG picture". Don't assume that understanding each phrase will enable you to understand the whole idea.

--> Answer the following questions:

1. What's the new solution?

2. How does the author evaluate the solution in terms of argument or an experiment/simulation?

3. Does the conclusion follow logically from the observations?

4. Do I think it is true? Can I convice someone else that it is true?

5. Is there any more conclusion or alternative conclusion?

6. Does the conclusion still hold for some special cases?

7. How should the work be followed up by the author? by myself?

Pass three: Make the idea your own.(10 minutes)

Reflect on the paper. Follow the idea back to its origin and rediscover it for yourself. Skim the paper back and forth if necessary.

1. Write down a outline in your own words in 3-5 sentences.

2. How do you apply their approach to your own work?

3. Write down your questions when you go along.




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